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Ostr. London, BM EA 14111

TEI-XML-File: https://p612399.webspaceconfig.de/xml/elephantine_erc_db_307719.tei.xml



Collection London, British Museum
Inventory Number Ostr. London, BM EA 14111
Current Location London, British Museum
Publication Permission Status permission for publication upon enquiry only
Publication Status unpublished

Origin / Provenance

Ancient Provenance Site Elephantine (Ꜣbw; Yb; YbꜢ; YbꜤ; Ἐλεφαντίνη, יב , ⲉⲓⲏⲃ) [Trismegistos]
Certainty: high
Ancient Provenance District Upper Egypt, 1st nome (Ombites) [Trismegistos]
Type of Discovery (unknown)
Finder (= First Purchaser) (unknown)
District of Find / Purchase in Egypt Upper Egypt, 1st nome (Ombites) [Trismegistos]
Date of Acquisition for the Intitution between 1876 and 1876
Transferor (Seller, Previous Owner) Chester, Greville John
Certainty: high
Buyer (Currently Housing Institution) Junker, Hermann


Object Type ostracon
Dating of Object The 1st-3rd AH/ 7th - 9th CE centuries
Dating between 801 and 1000
Criteria for Dating Based on the paleography.
Range of Preservation incomplete
State of Preservation Broken off on all sides.
Comments on Object Painted. 4 lines - one side.

Text Basic Information

Localization of Text on Object convex (outside)
Inks and Pigments carbon ink monochrome black
Range of Preservation (Text) incomplete
State of Preservation (Text) Small parts from the right and upper sides are missing, and unknown missing amount in the bottom, but it is most likely a large part. Ink is faded/rubbed in some places.
Script, Primary Arabic
Language, Primary Arabic
Comments on Handwriting Not a very neat handwriting, but seems to be from a practiced hand. Dots and vowels aren't used.
Comments on Text Layout The text covers nearly the entire (preserved) ostracon on the convex side. concave side is blank.
  recto verso
Quantity of Lines 4
Quantity of Columns 1


Text Content

Modern Title Private letter
Ancient Author of Text (Unknown [not mentioned in text])
Ancient Scribe(s) of Text
Text Types
  • documentary | letter
Summary of Content Part of a private letter. The surviving text is part of the usual introduction and greeting, and a few other words.
Location of Composition unknown unknown Egypt (Certainty: )
Comments on Text Because the writer was unable to finish the last two words of the second line, he rewrote it at the beginning of the third line.
Multilingualism Script = Language Monolingual
Gender Man
Religion Islam



Transcription Translation Pictures
1بســم الله الرحمن الرحيم اكرمكـ الله وابقاكـ واتم نعــمه
2واتم نعمه عليكـ وزاد في احسانه اليكـ كتابي الــيكـ
3عبد الله اليكـ وحو
4حق و

1[In the name] of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate, may God honor and preserve you, and complete his blessing
2and complete his blessing to you, and increase his bounty on you. My letter to [you]
3..؟.. ʿAbdallāh for you and [///]
4..؟.. right and [///]
Reserved Copyright
Reserved Copyright
Reserved Copyright
Places (read out from edition)


People mentioned in Text

ID gender en normiert original Language Functions in Texts
15950 man ʿAbdallāh عبد الله Arabic



RulerID Regnal Year MonthID Day Date of the Text Gregorian Date dating_comment
21 AH 641 CE Based on the paleography.;



Reserved Copyright
Reserved Copyright
Reserved Copyright




DatasetID 307719
last Change 29.07.2022
Trismegistos 388703
Author Ahmed Kamal
Dataset License Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
Data set citation Data set 307719 (= Ostr. London, BM EA 14111), ERC-Project ELEPHANTINE: Ahmed Kamal.